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The string

'Slide' effects

A dense object is placed on the string before/after plucking/striking/bowing.  The string on either side of the slide object vibrates.  For very dense objects, long glissandi are possible.

 

placing a slide object on the string during decay

The guitarists’ slide effect works by placing an object on a vibrating string to change the pitch as the sound decays.  A dense slide object increases the decay time (allowing for a long glissando) and makes an overtone-richer sound.  The slide only needs to rest on the string rather than press it to the fingerboard.  

 

For an open string: the open string pitch is followed by two tones.  The pitches of these are defined by the lengths of string from (nut-edge of) slide object to nut and (bridge-edge of) slide object to bridge.  Either of the two tones can be dampened with the fingers.  

 

For a stopped string: the string vibrates slide-bridge and slide-finger.  The vibration between slide and finger is usually quiet and with weak overtone content. 

Video 48

An example of ‘bottle neck’ technique, with a glissando.

exciting a string after a slide object has been placed on it

The two lengths of string either side of the slide can be plucked/struck separately, similar to a guitarists’ ‘bottle neck’ technique.

 

Glissandi with slides

Contrary motion glissandi effects are possible by moving the slide up and down the string.  As one pitch is raised the other is lowered.  

 

The amplitude and duration of these pitches are inversely proportional to damping at the slide.  Damping is minimised by using a dense slide object and/or by increasing the weight of the slide/the pressure between slide and string.  The more damping is reduced, the more possibilities there are for longer, wider glissandi. 

 

The amplitude of the longer string is greater than that of the shorter.  However at the centre of the string there is a slight bias towards the pitch that is transmitted via the bridge.  The pitches have equal amplitude near the centre of the string, a short distance closer to the bridge than the nut.   

 

For light, dense slide objects applied before/after high excitation forces, the string might rattle against the object.  For more information about mutes and rattles see Cello map link

Video 50

Slide glissandi with a light, dense slide object (a glass tube) that rattles against the string.